India's Population Profile

India’s population profile reflects a gradual but significant transition over the last 50 years that is evident in a decline in the share of population of those under 14 years from 41.2% in 1971 to 25.9% in 2018 and the share of the elderly (60+) going up from 5.3% to 8.1% during the same period on account of better health facilities leading to increase in life expectancy.

The Sample Registration System Statistical Report 2018 data released by the Registrar General of India shows that at the national level, 25.9% of the population was below 15 years in 2018 (27.5% in rural areas and 22.6% in urban areas).

Share of population below 15 years of age in rural areas varies from 19.8% in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana to 34.8 in Bihar. In urban areas, it varies from 17.9 in Jammu & Kashmir to 29.6 in Bihar.

As far as the composition of the elderly population goes, the elderly female population is higher than males in all the bigger states except Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Jammu & Kashmir, Odisha and Telangana. In rural areas, population in the age group 60+ constitutes 8% of the total population and variation in aged population ranges from 6% in Bihar to significantly high 13.3% in Kerala. The proportion of elderly population in urban areas is 8.3%.

As per the percentage distribution of population by age group in 2018, the population for 0-4 years age group was estimated to be 8%—8.6% for 5-9 years and 9.3% for 10-14 years. In the age-group 0-14 years, male population is about one percent more than female population, whereas in the older age groups—15-59 years and those above 60 years— the percentage of female population was more than that of males by a range of 0.5 to 0.6 percentage points.

Those between 15-19 years accounted for 10.2% and 10.8% were between 20-24 years. Those between 25-29 years accounted for 10.1%.

The elderly female population is higher than males in all large states except Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, J&K, Odisha and Telangana

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